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Iodine deficiency gives rise to goiter as well as cretinism, which results in developmental delays and other health problems. It is more common in mountainous regions of the world where food is grown in soil poor in iodine.
Iron deficiency is one of the most common of the nutritional deficiencies. The direct consequence of iron deficiency is iron deficiency anemia. Children and pre-menopausal women are the groups most prone to the disease.
Selenium deficiency may only occur when a low selenium status is linked with an additional stress, such as chemical exposure or increased oxidant stress due to vitamin E deficiency. It can occur in patients with severely compromised intestinal function, those undergoing total parenteral nutrition or of advanced age.